web analytics

60th Anniversary of the Treaties of Rome

by Politicker 0 Comments

The Treaties of Rome were the founding treaties establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC), which were signed on 25 March 1957 and entered into force on 1 January 1958.

Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (EEC)
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:xy0023

Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom)
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=URISERV%3Axy0024

A history of the EU can be found in the following timeline

http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/history/

EU heads of State or Government were invited to meet in Rome, Italy, on 25 March 2017 for the 60th anniversary of the Rome Treaties. (Theresa May declined the invitation to attend)

http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/03/15-tusk-invitation-letter-60-anniversary-rome/

The leaders will look back at the achievements of the last 60 years, reaffirm their unity, their common interests and values, as well as reflect on the current challenges and set the priorities for the next ten years and are expected to issue the Rome Declaration.

Background information and a programme is available at

http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/european-council/2017/03/170323-FINAL-Rome-background_pdf/

A joint declaration was signed by the leaders of 27 member states and by representatives of the European Council, the European Parliament and the European Commission.

The declaration outlines a 10 year plan for the future direction of the EU with a pledge to work towards

  • A safe and secure Europe
  • A prosperous and sustainable Europe
  • A social Europe
  • A stronger Europe on the global scene

amongst other things, it includes a commitment to work towards Economic and Monetary union

The full text of the declaration is available at

http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2017/03/25-rome-declaration/

References

https://europa.eu/newsroom/home_en

All pictures are © European Union, 2017

Research Papers from the EU

The Brexit Negotiations: An Assessment Of The Legal, Political And Institutional Situation In The UK

is an in-depth analysis on the political and institutional situation in the United Kingdom following the referendum on the UK’s withdrawal from the EU, and was prepared by Charles GRANT from the Centre for European Reform.

This research paper was requested by the European Parliament’s Committee on Constitutional Affairs (AFCO) and was commissioned, overseen and published by the Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs.

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2017/583130/IPOL_IDA(2017)583130_EN.pdf

In a number of findings the research concludes that:

The outcome of the Brexit talks will be shaped to a large degree by the EU governments. They are mostly united in taking a hard line. Worried about the cohesion and unity of the EU, they do not want populist leaders to be able to point to the British and say, “They are doing fine outside the EU, let us go and join them.” Exiting must be seen to carry a price.

There are only three possible outcomes of the Brexit talks:

  • a separation agreement plus an accord on future relations including an FTA;
  • a separation agreement but no deal on future relations, so that Britain has to rely on WTO rules;
  • neither a separation agreement nor a deal on future relations, so that Britain faces legal chaos and has to rely on WTO rules

The Impact and Consequences of Brexit for Northern Ireland

is a Briefing paper prepared by Jonathan Tonge from the University of Liverpool in the UK on behalf of European Parliament’s Committee on Constitutional Affairs (AFCO).

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2017/583116/IPOL_BRI(2017)583116_EN.pdf

The paper explores the legal position and other issues concerning Northern Ireland in relation to the UK and Ireland and discusses a number of topics:

  • The Legal position
    • UK government legislative dominance over the Northern Ireland Assembly
    • Challenges to the UK government’s domination of the EU withdrawal process
    • The legal upholding of the UK government’s position
    • The impact of EU withdrawal upon legislation for Northern Ireland
  • Issues relating to the Good Friday Agreement
    • Political stances on EU withdrawal
    • The Good Friday Agreement and Northern Ireland Assembly legislation
    • The Good Friday Agreement and EU membership
    • EU membership references in the Good Friday Agreement
    • How can the Good Friday Agreement be revised?
  • Implications of Brexit for Northern Ireland
    • Issues of free movement: The Common Travel Area
    • Cross-border trade, tariffs and the Customs Union

References

More research and analysis papers from the EU can be found at
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/supporting-analyses

The Centre for European Reform is a think-tank devoted to making the EU work better, and strengthening its role in the world. They are pro-European.
https://www.cer.org.uk

Brexit Negotiations – Who’s Who

by Politicker 0 Comments

Theresa May has indicated that she will invoke Article 50 on Wednesday 29 March 2017. This is the formal notification required to indicate the intention of the UK to withdraw from the EU.

Significant figures in the Brexit negotiations are:

For the UK

Theresa May – Prime Minister, UK

David Davis – Secretary of State for Exiting the EU

Boris Johnson – Foreign Secretary

Philip Hammond – Chancellor of the Exchequer

Liam Fox – Secretary of State for International Trade

For the EU

The UK will be in negotiation with all 3 EU institutions, the European Commission, European Council and European Parliament represented by:

Michel Barnier – European Commission Chief Brexit Negotiator

Didier Seeuws – Council Special Taskforce Chief Negotiator

Guy Verhofstadt – European Parliament Chief Negotiator on Brexit

Notification of Withdrawal Bill

by Politicker 0 Comments

As a result of the decision of the Supreme Court requiring Parliamentary approval to invoke Article 50, the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill 2016-17 was introduced to Parliament by David Davis on 26 January 2017.

https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/bills/cbill/2016-2017/0132/17132.pdf

Other documents can be found at

http://services.parliament.uk/bills/2016-17/europeanunionnotificationofwithdrawal/documents.html

A briefing paper from the House of Commons Library is available at

Full Report: http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/CBP-7884/CBP-7884.pdf

Summary: http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/CBP-7884

The Bill is debated, first in the House of Commons and then in the House of Lords.

House of Commons

1st Reading

The Bill was presented to the House of Commons and given its 1st Reading on Thursday 26 January 2017. This stage is formal and takes place without debate.

2nd Reading

The 2nd Reading of the Bill took place over two days on 31 January and 01 February 2017 when MPs could debate the bill. Usually the second reading of a bill is conducted over a single day, but in this case, the time was extended over 2 days due to the importance of the bill. Parliamentary time was also extended to Midnight on the first day.

Jeremy Corbyn imposed a three-line whip on Labour MPs, directing them to vote for the Bill, because the Shadow Cabinet had agreed not to block Article 50. It is called a three-line whip because the instruction from the Labour Chief Whip is underlined three times, meaning MPs must vote as directed or risk being disciplined.

The Bill passed the 2nd Reading by 498 votes to 114 and proceeded to a Committee of the Whole House for consideration of possible amendments to the Bill.

Committee Stage

The Committee stage took place over 3 days 6th, 7th and 8th of February 2017

There were 175 Amendments to the Bill for consideration by MP’s. Details of these amendments are contained in the following documents:

Amendments – Monday 6th February

Amendments – Tuesday 7th February

Amendments – Wednesday 8th February

None of the amendments were accepted, following a number of votes, and the Bill was passed in its original form.

Report Stage and 3rd Reading

MPs approved the 3rd Reading of the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill on Wednesday (evening) 8 February 2016 by 494 votes to 122, giving a majority of 372.

The Bill was passed to the House of Lords for further scrutiny, possible amendments, and vote.

House of Lords

1st Reading

The Bill passed the 1st reading in the House of Lords on 8 February 2017.

The House of Lords is in recess from 10 February to 20 February

2nd Reading

The 2nd reading of the Bill took place over 2 days, 20th and 21st February 2017.

The 2nd reading of the Bill was completed on 21 February.

Committee Stage

The committee stage of the Bill took place over 2 days 27 February 2017 and 01 March 2017. It was completed on 01 March 2017.

By a vote of 358 to 256, the following amendment was agreed:

Baroness Hayter of Kentish Town moved amendment 9B, in clause 1, page 1, line 3, at end to insert:

“( ) Within three months of exercising the power under section 1(1), Ministers of the Crown must bring forward proposals to ensure that citizens of another European Union or European Economic Area country and their family members, who are legally resident in the United Kingdom on the day on which this Act is passed, continue to be treated in the same way with regards to their EU derived-rights and, in the case of residency, their potential to acquire such rights in the future.”

Report Stage and 3rd Reading

Following the Committee Stage, the Report Stage was held on 7 March 2017, the Bill was discussed in a number of sittings and Amendments were agreed.

This was followed by the 3rd reading of the Bill and after further debate, the Bill was returned to the House of Commons with amendments on 7 March 2017.

The suggested amendments are:

Ping Pong

In order for a Bill to become Law, both the House of Commons and the House of Lords must agree on the final wording in the Bill. If the House of Lords suggests amendments should be made, the Bill is passed back to the House of Commons for further debate, to consider those changes.

This process is known as “ping pong“. If the House of Commons agrees to the amendments the Bill passes on to the next stage, otherwise, the House of Commons can reject the amendments or make further changes/additions and pass the Bill back to the House of Lords for further debate. At this stage the House of Lords can accept what the Commons has decided, or offer further amendments and return it to the House of Commons. This process could continue indefinitely but can be limited by the time available for debate.

It is unlikely that the House of Lords will reject a Bill more than once, and the House of Commons has an option to use the Parliament Act to override (and ignore) amendments made by the House of Lords.

http://www.parliament.uk/about/how/laws/parliamentacts/

The Bill was received back in the House of Commons and debated on 13 March 2017. Both amendments were rejected, Amendment 1 by 335 votes to 287 and Amendment 2 by 331 votes to 286, for the following reasons

The Commons disagree to Lords Amendment 1 for the following reason—

Because it is not a matter that needs to be dealt with in the Bill.

The Commons disagree to Lords Amendment 2 for the following reason—

Because it is not a matter that needs to be dealt with in the Bill.

The Bill was returned to the House of Lords.

After further debate, the House of Lords did not insist on their amendments and the Bill completed its journey through the Houses of Parliament on 13 March 2017.

Royal Assent

This stage is when the Queen formally agrees to make the Bill into an Act of Parliament and becomes Law.

The Bill was granted Royal Assent and announced by the Speaker in the House of Commons on 16 March 2017 who stated:

I have to notify the House, in accordance with the Royal Assent 1967, that her Majesty has signified her royal assent to the following acts: Supply and Appropriation (Anticipation and Adjustments) Act 2017, European Union (Notification of withdrawal) Act 2017.

The Prime Minister can now legally begin the formal process of leaving the EU by invoking Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (Lisbon Treaty).

Three Knights Opinion

by Politicker 0 Comments

Law firm Bindmans LLP, based in London UK, has published a legal Opinion “IN THE MATTER OF ARTICLE 50 OF THE TREATY ON EUROPEAN UNION – Opinion“, which considers legal questions arising from the process of leaving the European Union.

This is also known as the Three Knights Opinion.

An article (17th february 2017) discussing the Opinion in more detail is available on Bindmans website at

https://www.bindmans.com/news/withdrawal-bill

The Three Knights Opinion was prepared by Sir David Edward, former judge of the European Court of Justice, Sir Francis Jacobs, that Court’s former Advocate General, and distinguished EU lawyer Sir Jeremy Lever (retired) together with two QCs Helen Mountfield and Gerry Facenna.

It explores the following questions

(i) What are the United Kingdom’s ‘constitutional requirements’ for a decision to withdraw from the European Union, within the meaning of paragraph 1 of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union (‘TEU’)(‘Article 50’)? Do they include a requirement for an Act of Parliament approving the terms of withdrawal at the end of the Article 50 process?

(ii) Does Article 50 permit the United Kingdom to decide to withdraw from the European Union, and notify its ‘intention’ to do so, subject to the fulfilment of constitutional requirements, such as an Act of Parliament approving the terms of withdrawal? If such constitutional requirements are not satisfied, would the notification lapse, or could it be withdrawn, before the end of the two-year period referred to in the third paragraph of Article 50?

(iii) What is the position if the United Kingdom and the European Union do not reach any agreement?

In summary, the Opinion suggests that after the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal Bill) is passed through Parliament, the Prime Minister will be able to notify the EU of the UKs intention to leave the EU, but actual withdrawal from the EU has to be authorised by Parliament after negotiations have completed.

The compete, published document is available at

https://www.bindmans.com/uploads/files/documents/Final_Article_50_Opinion_10.2.17.pdf

Background

CrowdJustice is a crowd-funding platform to raise funds specifically for legal cases.

The CrowdJustice campaign Leaving the European Union: Should Parliament decide? organised by Jolyon Maugham QC raised £10,665 pledged by 406 people.

https://www.crowdjustice.org/case/should-parliament-decide/

It posed the question “Can the Prime Minister decide whether to leave the EU or does it require an act of Parliament?”. The funds were used to take advice from leading lawyers and to write to the government to determine its position.

The People’s Challenge to the Government on Art. 50: A Parliamentary Prerogative is a campaign, organised by Grahame Pigney, which raised more tham £170,000, pledged by 4918 people.

https://www.crowdjustice.org/case/parliament-should-decide/

It was created to challenge the ability of the Government being able to trigger Article 50 without requiring an Act of Parliament.

The People’s Challenge campaign is represented by a team from Bindmans LLP led by John Halford and their barristers are Helen Mounfield QC, Gerry Facenna QC, Tim Johnston and Jack Williams.

Following on, is the crowd-funding campaign The Second People’s Challenge: helping Parliament take control on Article 50, also organised by Grahame Pigney and which has raised more than £57,000 to date.

https://www.crowdjustice.org/case/parliament-take-control/

The Second People’s campaign is lobbying MPs and Peers to assist them in their decision making process during the passage of the European Union (Notification of Withdrawal Bill) through Parliament and afterwards during subsequent negotiations with the EU.

The Three Knights Opinion detailed above was commissioned, published and circulated to all Peers using funds provided from these self styled “People’s Challenge” campaigns.

Other documents produced include:

A guide to EU citizenship rights at stake in the negotiations (which was circulated to all MPs).

https://www.bindmans.com/uploads/files/documents/UK_Parliament_EU_Citizenship_rights_booklet.pdf

An amendment briefing sent to all Peers

https://www.bindmans.com/uploads/files/documents/EU_Notification_Bill_-_Lords_Committee_Stage_briefing_on_the_parliamentary_approval_amendment.pdf

css.php