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Technical note on security, law enforcement and criminal justice

This technical note is part of a series of papers produced by the UK negotiating team for discussion with the EU, it provides analysis of the existing precedents for cooperation between the EU and third countries in the area of security, law enforcement and criminal justice before setting out the UK’s proposals for a new internal security treaty with the EU for future cooperation across these areas.


It is unlikely that the wide range of threats we face together will diminish; they will inevitably evolve and could well increase in intensity. Over the past year we have seen a series of deadly terrorist attacks in the UK and across Europe. Other plots have been foiled but more will be at the planning stage. The fact that the UK is leaving the
EU is unlikely to significantly affect the scale of movements of people between us: 37.6 million EEA and Swiss nationals entered the UK in 2016. Over 3 million EU nationals live in the UK and over 1 million UK nationals live in other Member States.

The UK’s analysis indicates that there will be a serious drop off in our ability to cooperate to tackle internal security threats if we do not seek to move beyond existing precedents for EU cooperation with third countries on individual measures. That shortfall would affect law enforcement agencies and judicial authorities in the UK and the EU27, and would have a direct impact on their ability to bring criminals to justice – and by extension, on public safety.

The UK believes there is a compelling case for developing a future relationship that protects critical operational capabilities and keeps our citizens safe. Our analysis suggests that this outcome would be delivered most effectively by a new, comprehensive Internal Security Treaty that draws on legal precedents for strategic relationships between the EU and third countries in other areas of the acquis and enables cooperation to be sustained on the basis of existing EU measures where this delivers mutual operational benefits. This would be the most efficient way to protect the capabilities that protect our citizens, avoid downgrading the quality and quantity of cooperation between us, and ensure our relationship can evolve over time as threats and technology change.

Technical note on the UK’s participation in Galileo

This technical note is part of a series of papers produced by the UK negotiating team for discussion with the EU, itsets out the UK’s position on participation in the Galileo programme.


  • The UK wants to continue participating in Galileo. This is in the mutual interests of the UK and EU, benefitting European competitiveness, security, capability development and interoperability. An end to close UK participation will be to the detriment of Europe’s prosperity and security and could result in delays and additional costs to the programme.
  • Future UK participation in Galileo should be agreed as part of the future security partnership between the UK and the EU. The UK and EU must work through issues relating to access to security-related elements of the programme in the framework of negotiations on the security partnership.
  • These negotiations should not be preempted or prejudged by actions that restrict UK participation.
  • If agreement cannot be reached on the future balance of rights and obligations, and UK security and industrial requirements consequently cannot be met, the UK could not justify future participation in Galileo. In parallel, the UK is therefore exploring alternatives to fulfil its needs for secure and resilient position, navigation and timing information, including the option for a domestic satellite system.

Options for an independent satellite system for the UK

The UK Government confirmed that the UK Space Agency will lead work to develop options for a British Global Navigation Satellite System.


The UK Government has confirmed today it is developing options for a British Global Navigation Satellite System.

Led by the UK Space Agency, a taskforce of Government specialists and industry will work quickly to develop options that will provide both civilian and encrypted signals and be compatible with the GPS system.

The UK is already a world-leader in developing satellite technology, building 40 per cent of the world’s small satellites and one in four commercial telecommunications satellites.

UK companies have made a critical contribution to the EU Galileo programme, building the payloads for the satellites and developing security systems. The taskforce will draw on this experience and expertise as it develops plans for an innovative system that could deliver on the UK’s security needs and provide commercial services.

Business Secretary Greg Clark said:

This taskforce will develop options for an independent satellite navigation system using the world-beating expertise of Britain’s thriving space sector. We have made our position clear to the European Commission and highlighted the importance of the UK to the Galileo programme.

It is now right that we explore alternative options to ensure our security needs are met as we continue to take full advantage of the opportunities that exist in the global space sector, through our modern Industrial Strategy.

Dr Graham Turnock, CEO of UK Space Agency said:

As the Government has made clear, we should begin work now on options for a national alternative to Galileo to guarantee our satellite positioning, navigation and timing needs are met in the future. The UK Space Agency is well placed to lead this work and will use a wide-range of expertise from across the space, engineering and security sectors.

The UK will be able to use Galileo’s open signal in the future, and British Armed Forces and emergency services were due to have access to the encrypted system when it is fully operational.

The Government has been clear there is a mutual benefit to the UK remaining involved in Galileo and is working hard to deliver this. Without the assurance that UK industry can collaborate on an equal basis and without continued access to the necessary security-related information, the UK could be obliged to end its participation in the project.

The Business Secretary Greg Clark wrote to the Commission last month expressing concern about its intention to exclude the UK from the secure elements of Galileo. The UK Space Agency has been engaging regularly with the UK companies involved and will now lead the work to develop potential alternative options.

The recent Blackett review estimated that a failure of navigation satellite service could cost the UK economy £1 billion a day. Resilient and secure position, navigation and timing information is increasingly essential for defence, critical national infrastructure and emergency response.

The UK Space Agency is driving the growth of the space sector as part of the Government’s Industrial Strategy with major initiatives including the National Space Test Facility at Harwell, and the UK continues to be a leading member of the European Space Agency, which is independent of the EU.

New figures released today by the ADS Group trade body show that in 2017 the UK space industry was worth around £15 billion a year in turnover, with exports of £5.4 billion and 71 percent growth since 2012.